The escalating prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide, with an increased rate of morbidity and mortality, highlights an urgent need to develop more effective therapeutic interventions. Despite the authorized treatment against COVID-19 by the European Union (EU), the safety and effectiveness of this therapeutic strategy for a wide variety of patients have remained a significant challenge. In this respect, micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals, as essential factors, can be considered for improving the function of the immune system and accelerating the treatment procedure. Dietary supplements can attenuate vascular and inflammatory manifestations related to infectious diseases in large part due to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Recently, it has been revealed that poor nutritional status may be one of the notable risk factors in severe COVID-19 infections. In the current review, we focus on the micronutrient therapy of COVID-19 patients and provide a comprehensive insight into the essential vitamins/minerals and their role in controlling the severity of the COVID-19 infection. We also discuss the recent advancements, challenges, negative and positive outcomes in relevance to this approach.