The aim of the thesis is the fabrication and optical characterization of three-dimensional organic microlasers based on organic dyes and luminescent erbium/ytterbium nanoparticles.At the beginning, we considered submicron polymer structures with high aspect ratio, as well as the phenomenon of redistribution of nanoparticles in the volume of the composite during the exposure by a periodic light field pattern.The main part of the work is devoted to obtaining three-dimensional polymer microlasers by UV-lithography. Comparison of the lasing threshold for microcavities obtained by different methods was performed. Periodic orbits in cuboid microlasers with square cross-section were identified. Analysis of possible periodic orbits in microlasers Fabry-Perot showed that the shape of the orbit depends on the dye, the type of substrate and the size of the microlaser (width, height).The last part of the work contains a study of low-temperature synthesis of luminescent nanoparticles of erbium and ytterbium oxides in a anhydrous medium, and polymer composites based on them. Three dimensional organic microlasers doped by these luminescent nanoparticles were obtained and investigated.