The precise structural characterization of allergens is a basic requirement to improve diagnostics and to find therapeutic strategies against allergic disorders. Natural grass pollen allergens exhibit a wide variety of isoforms and it is still unknown whether this microheterogeneity is essential for the allergic reaction or has a functional effect on sensitization. Well-defined recombinant allergens are considered to replace natural allergens for clinical trials. For the major timothy grass pollen allergen Phl p 6 (approximately 12 kDa) and a recombinant rPhl p 6 we determined the structural microheterogeneity by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), high-resolution electrospray ionization-Fourier transform-mass spectrometry (ESI-FT-MS) of the intact molecules, and by tryptic peptide mass fingerprinting using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Natural Phl p 6 is a mixture of mainly two isoforms that differ by two amino acids leading to a mass difference of 5 Da. For each of this two isoforms six variants were identified with modifications at the C- and/or N-terminus. The recombinant Phl p 6 comprises the same structure as one of the main isoforms indicating that it represents a major part of the natural Phl p 6.