BackgroundColony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) expression in the central nervous system (CNS) increases in response to a variety of stimuli, and CSF1 is overexpressed in many CNS diseases. In young adult mice, we previously showed that CSF1 overexpression in the CNS caused the proliferation of IBA1+ microglia without promoting the expression of M2 polarization markers.MethodsImmunohistochemical and molecular analyses were performed to further examine the impact of CSF1 overexpression on glia in both young and aged mice.ResultsAs CSF1 overexpressing mice age, IBA1+ cell numbers are constrained by a decline in proliferation rate. Compared to controls, there were no differences in expression of the M2 markers ARG1 and MRC1 (CD206) in CSF1 overexpressing mice of any age, indicating that even prolonged exposure to increased CSF1 does not impact M2 polarization status in vivo. Moreover, RNA-sequencing confirmed the lack of increased expression of markers of M2 polarization in microglia exposed to CSF1 overexpression but did reveal changes in expression of other immune-related genes. Although treatment with inhibitors of the CSF1 receptor, CSF1R, has been shown to impact other glia, no increased expression of oligodendrocyte lineage or astrocyte markers was observed in CSF1 overexpressing mice.ConclusionsOur study indicates that microglia are the primary glial lineage impacted by CSF1 overexpression in the CNS and that microglia ultimately adapt to the presence of the CSF1 mitogenic signal.