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Microfluidic-based nanoemulsion of Ocimum basilicum extract: Constituents, stability, characterization, and potential biomedical applications for improved antimicrobial and anticancer properties.

Authors
  • Ahmad, Irfan1
  • Al-Dolaimy, F2
  • Kzar, Mazin Hadi3
  • Kareem, Ashwaq Talib4
  • Mizal, Thair L5
  • Omran, Aisha A6
  • Alazbjee, Adeeb Abdulally Abdulhussien7
  • Obaidur Rab, Safia1
  • Eskandar, Mamdoh8
  • Alawadi, Ahmed Hussien9, 10, 11
  • Alsalamy, Ali12
  • 1 Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia. , (Saudi Arabia)
  • 2 Al-Zahraa University for Women, Karbala, Iraq. , (Iraq)
  • 3 College of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Al-Mustaqbal University, Hillah, Babil, Iraq. , (Iraq)
  • 4 College of Pharmacy, National University of Science and Technology, Dhi Qar, Iraq. , (Iraq)
  • 5 Department of Medical Engineering, Al-Esraa University College, Baghdad, Iraq. , (Iraq)
  • 6 Department of Medical Engineering, AL-Nisour University College, Baghdad, Iraq. , (Iraq)
  • 7 College of Medicine, Al-Ayen University, Thi-Qar, Iraq. , (Iraq)
  • 8 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia. , (Saudi Arabia)
  • 9 College of Technical Engineering, The Islamic University, Najaf, Iraq. , (Iraq)
  • 10 College of Technical Engineering, The Islamic University of Al Diwaniyah, Al Diwaniyah, Iraq. , (Iraq)
  • 11 College of Technical Engineering, The Islamic University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq. , (Iraq)
  • 12 College of Technical Engineering, Imam Ja'afar Al-Sadiq University, Al-Muthanna, Iraq. , (Iraq)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Microscopy Research and Technique
Publisher
Wiley (John Wiley & Sons)
Publication Date
Mar 01, 2024
Volume
87
Issue
3
Pages
411–423
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1002/jemt.24444
PMID: 37877737
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

This paper reports on the findings from a study that aimed to identify and characterize the constituents of Ocimum basilicum extract using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, as well as assess the physicochemical properties and stability of nanoemulsions formulated with O. basilicum extract. The GC-MS analysis revealed that the O. basilicum extract contained 22 components, with Caryophyllene and Naringenin identified as the primary active constituents. The nanoemulsion formulation demonstrated excellent potential for use in the biomedical field, with a small and uniform particle size distribution, a negative zeta potential, and high encapsulation efficiency for the O. basilicum extract. The nanoemulsions exhibited spherical morphology and remained physically stable for up to 6 months. In vitro release studies indicated sustained release of the extract from the nanoemulsion formulation compared to the free extract solution. Furthermore, the developed nanoformulation exhibited enhanced anticancer properties against K562 cells while demonstrating low toxicity in normal cells (HEK293). The O. basilicum extract demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Staphylococcus epidermidis, with a potential synergistic effect observed when combined with the nanoemulsion. These findings contribute to the understanding of the constituents and potential applications of O. basilicum extract and its nanoemulsion formulation in various fields, including healthcare and pharmaceutical industries. Further optimization and research are necessary to maximize the efficacy and antimicrobial activity of the extract and its nanoformulation. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS: This study characterized the constituents of O. basilicum extract and assessed the physicochemical properties and stability of its nanoemulsion formulation. The O. basilicum extract contained 22 components, with Caryophyllene and Naringenin identified as the primary active constituents. The nanoemulsion formulation demonstrated excellent potential for biomedical applications, with sustained release of the extract, low toxicity, and enhanced anticancer and antimicrobial properties. The findings contribute to the understanding of the potential applications of O. basilicum extract and its nanoemulsion formulation in healthcare and pharmaceutical industries, highlighting the need for further optimization and research. © 2023 Wiley Periodicals LLC.

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