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Microbiota and viral hepatitis: State of the art of a complex matter

Authors
  • Milosevic, Ivana
  • Russo, Edda
  • Vujovic, Ankica
  • Barac, Aleksandra
  • Stevanovic, Olja
  • Gitto, Stefano
  • Amedei, Amedeo
Type
Published Article
Journal
World Journal of Gastroenterology
Publisher
Baishideng Publishing Group Inc
Publication Date
Sep 07, 2021
Volume
27
Issue
33
Pages
5488–5501
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i33.5488
PMID: 34588747
PMCID: PMC8433613
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Review
License
Unknown

Abstract

Changes in gut microbiota influence both the gut and liver, which are strictly connected by the so-called “gut–liver axis”. The gut microbiota acts as a major determinant of this relationship in the onset and clinical course of liver diseases. According to the results of several studies, gut dysbiosis is linked to viral hepatitis, mainly hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus infection. Gut bacteria-derived metabolites and cellular components are key molecules that affect liver function and modulate the pathology of viral hepatitis. Recent studies showed that the gut microbiota produces various molecules, such as peptidoglycans, lipopolysaccharides, DNA, lipoteichoic acid, indole-derivatives, bile acids, and trimethylamine, which are translocated to the liver and interact with liver immune cells causing pathological effects. Therefore, the existence of crosstalk between the gut microbiota and the liver and its implications on host health and pathologic status are essential factors impacting the etiology and therapeutic approach. Concrete mechanisms behind the pathogenic role of gut-derived components on the pathogenesis of viral hepatitis remain unclear and not understood. In this review, we discuss the current findings of research on the bidirectional relationship of the components of gut microbiota and the progression of liver diseases and viral hepatitis and vice versa . Moreover, this paper highlights the current therapeutic and preventive strategies, such as fecal transplantation, used to restore the gut microbiota composition and so improve host health.

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