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Microbiome and host crosstalk: A new paradigm to cancer therapy.

Authors
  • Singh, Ashutosh1
  • Nayak, Namyashree1
  • Rathi, Preeti1
  • Verma, Deepanshu1
  • Sharma, Rohit2
  • Chaudhary, Ashun3
  • Agarwal, Alka4
  • Tripathi, Yamini Bhushan4
  • Garg, Neha5
  • 1 School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi 175005, Himachal Pradesh, India. , (India)
  • 2 Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Faculty of Ayurveda, Institute of Medical Sciences, BHU, Varanasi 221005, Uttar Pradesh, India. , (India)
  • 3 Central University of Himachal Pradesh, Shahpur, Dist. Kangra, Himachal Pradesh 176206, India. , (India)
  • 4 Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Ayurveda, Institute of Medical Sciences, BHU, Varanasi 221005, Uttar Pradesh, India. , (India)
  • 5 Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Ayurveda, Institute of Medical Sciences, BHU, Varanasi 221005, Uttar Pradesh, India. Electronic address: [email protected] , (India)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Seminars in Cancer Biology
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
May 01, 2021
Volume
70
Pages
71–84
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.semcancer.2020.05.014
PMID: 32479952
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

The commensal microbiome of humans has co-evolved for thousands of years. The microbiome regulates human health and is also linked to several diseases, including cancer. The advances in next-generation sequencing have significantly contributed to our understanding of the microbiome and its association with cancer and cancer therapy. Recent studies have highlighted a close relationship of the microbiome to the pharmacological effect of chemotherapy and immunotherapy. The chemo-drugs usually interfere with the host immune system and reduces the microbiome diversity inside the body, which in turn leads to decreased efficacy of these drugs. The human microbiome, specifically the gut microbiome, increases the potency of chemo-drugs through metabolism, enzymatic degradation, ecological differences, and immunomodulation. Recent research exploits the involvement of microbiome to shape the efficacy and decrease the toxicity of these chemo-drugs. In this review, we have highlighted the recent development in understanding the relationship of the human microbiome with cancer and also emphasize on various roles of the microbiome in the modulation of cancer therapy. Additionally, we also summarize the ongoing research focussed on the improved efficacy of chemotherapy and immunotherapy using the host microbiome. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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