Purpose of ReviewWe review the emerging evidence regarding the relationship between the microbiota of the gastrointestinal and female reproductive tracts and gynecologic cancer.Recent FindingsThe microbiome has essential roles in maintaining health. In recent years, the microbiota of the gastrointestinal and female reproductive tracts have been linked to many diseases, including gynecologic cancer. Alterations to the bacterial populations in a microbiota, or dysbiosis, have been shown to favor a pro-carcinogenic state through altered immune responses, dysregulated hormone metabolism, and modulation of the cell cycle. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have emerged, demonstrating that specific bacteria or microbial communities may be associated with increased risk for uterine, ovarian, and cervical cancers. Notably, numerous studies have linked a non-Lactobacillus-dominant vaginal microbiota, composed of anaerobic bacteria, with HPV infection, persistence, and development of invasive cervical cancer. Similarly, next-generation high-throughput sequencing techniques have enabled the characterization of unique microbiotas in patients with malignant and benign gynecologic conditions, shedding light on new associations between bacterial species and gynecologic cancers. Harnessing the power of the microbiome for early diagnosis, therapeutic intervention and modulation creates tremendous potential to optimize gynecologic cancer outcomes in the future.