Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate microbiota and radiographic peri-implant bone loss associated with ligature-induced peri-implantitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six dental implants with 4 different surfaces (9 commercially pure titanium, 9 titanium plasma-sprayed, 9 hydroxyapatite, and 9 acid-etched) were placed in the edentulous mandibles of 6 dogs. After 3 months with optimal plaque control, abutment connection was performed. On days 0, 20, 40, and 60 after placement of cotton ligatures, both microbiologic samples and periapical radiographs were obtained. The presence of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens, Campylobacter spp, Capnocytophaga spp, Fusobacterium spp, beta-hemolytic Streptococcus, and Candida spp were evaluated culturally. Results: P intermedia/nigrescens was detected in 13.89% of implants at baseline and 100% of implants at other periods. P gingivalis was not detected at baseline, but after 20 and 40 days it was detected in 33.34% of implants and at 60 days it was detected in 29.03% of dental implants. Fusobacterium spp was detected in all periods. Streptococci were detected in 16.67% of implants at baseline and in 83.34%, 72.22%, and 77.42% of implants at 20, 40, and 60 days, respectively. Campylobacter spp and Candida spp were detected in low proportions. The total viable count analysis showed no significant differences among surfaces (P = .831), although a significant difference was observed after ligature placement (P < .0014). However, there was no significant qualitative difference, in spite of the difference among the periods. The peri-implant bone loss was not significantly different between all the dental implant surfaces (P = .908). Discussion and Conclusions: These data suggest that with ligature-induced peri-implantitis, both time and periodontal pathogens affect all surfaces equally after 60 days.