We describe the use of "high-performance" liquid chromatography to measure chloramphenicol in as little as 25 microL of serum. Serum is treated to precipitate proteins with acetonitrile containing p-nitroacetanilide as an internal standard. Chloramphenicol is eluted with a mobile phase of methanol in pH 7.0 phosphate buffer (35/65 by vol). The drug is measured at 278 nm and simultaneously monitored at 254 nm; interfering substances are detected by examining the 278 nm/254 absorbance ratios. This method is sensitive to less than 0.5 mg/L and the standard curve is linear to at least 50 mg/L. Inter-day precision ranged between 3--6%. We encountered no interference from endogenous compounds or from other drugs we tested.