Wastewater and sewage sludge are a place of occurrence of many microorganisms, including viruses, pathogenic and relatively pathogenic bacteria. They can leak into other environments, i.e. receiver waters or soil, thus creating a biological hazard. Increasing the sanitary level of safety of municipal wastewater treatment plants requires the introduction of disinfection of sewage and sewage sludge. The purpose of this article is a short review of the literature on methods used in disinfection of wastewater and sewage sludge. The work discusses the sanitary characteristics of wastewater and sewage sludge, primarily paying attention to the physical and chemical methods used to disinfect them. In addition, attention was also paid to the aspect of practical use of disinfection in municipal wastewater treatment plants around the world.