The Madlener, Pomeroy, and Kroener methods of tubal sterilization can be used with transvaginal or transabdominal approaches. The risk of thrombosis increases during post-partum sterilizations. During puerperium, a transvaginal approach is not possible, and the transvaginal approach has proved to be less effective. The Irving, Kaeser, Uchida, Aldridge, and v.d. Velda techniques can be used only with transabdominal approaches. Laparoscopic electrocoagulation of the Fallopian tubes involves a shorter hospitalization period, and the operation, which is performed under local anesthesia, results in fewer post-operative complications and only small scars. Special equipment and experienced personnel are required for the operation, however, and the electrocoagulation can cause burns. Laparoscopic electrocoagulation cannot be used in cases of tubal adhesions. Hysterectomy is preferred as a means of sterilization in cases where the uterus is best removed for additional reasons. Hysteroscopy and coagulation of the tubal ostia and pars intermuralis successfully result in sterility in up to 90% of the cases.