BackgroundIn the last decade, increasing evidence has shown that changes in human gut microbiota are associated with diseases, such as obesity. The excreted/secreted proteins (secretome) of the gut microbiota affect the microbial composition, altering its colonization and persistence. Furthermore, it influences microbiota-host interactions by triggering inflammatory reactions and modulating the host's immune response. The metatranscriptome is essential to elucidate which genes are expressed under diseases. In this regard, little is known about the expressed secretome in the microbiome. Here, we use a metatranscriptomic approach to delineate the secretome of the gut microbiome of Mexican children with normal weight (NW) obesity (O) and obesity with metabolic syndrome (OMS). Additionally, we performed the 16S rRNA profiling of the gut microbiota.ResultsOut of the 115,712 metatranscriptome genes that codified for proteins, 30,024 (26%) were predicted to be secreted, constituting the Secrebiome of the gut microbiome. The 16S profiling confirmed an increased abundance in Firmicutes and decreased in Bacteroidetes in the obesity groups, and a significantly higher richness and diversity than the normal weight group. We found novel biomarkers for obesity with metabolic syndrome such as increased Coriobacteraceae, Collinsela, and Collinsella aerofaciens; Erysipelotrichaceae, Catenibacterium and Catenibacterium sp., and decreased Parabacteroides distasonis, which correlated with clinical and anthropometric parameters associated to obesity and metabolic syndrome. Related to the Secrebiome, 16 genes, homologous to F. prausniitzi, were overexpressed for the obese and 15 genes homologous to Bacteroides, were overexpressed in the obesity with metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, a significant enrichment of CAZy enzymes was found in the Secrebiome. Additionally, significant differences in the antigenic density of the Secrebiome were found between normal weight and obesity groups.ConclusionsThese findings show, for the first time, the role of the Secrebiome in the functional human-microbiota interaction. Our results highlight the importance of metatranscriptomics to provide novel information about the gut microbiome’s functions that could help us understand the impact of the Secrebiome on the homeostasis of its human host. Furthermore, the metatranscriptome and 16S profiling confirmed the importance of treating obesity and obesity with metabolic syndrome as separate conditions to better understand the interplay between microbiome and disease.