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Metastatic melanoma - a review of current and future treatment options.

Authors
  • Emanual Maverakis
  • La, Cornelius
  • Gm, Bowen
  • T, Phan
  • Fb, Patel
  • S, Fitzmaurice
  • Y, He
  • B, Burrall
  • C, Duong
  • Am, Kloxin
  • H, Sultani
  • R, Wilken
  • Sr, Martinez
  • F, Patel
Type
Published Article
Journal
Acta Dermato Venereologica
Publisher
Acta Dermato-Venereologica
Volume
95
Issue
5
Pages
516–516
Identifiers
DOI: 10.2340/00015555-2035
Source
maverakislab-ucdavis dermatology-ucdavis
License
Unknown

Abstract

Despite advances in treatment and surveillance, melanoma continues to claim approximately 9,000 lives in the US annually (SEER 2013). The National Comprehensive Cancer Network currently recommends ipilumumab, vemurafenib, dabrafenib, and high-dose IL-2 as first line agents for Stage IV melanoma. Little data exists to guide management of cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases despite the fact that they are relatively common. Existing options include intralesional Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, isolated limb perfusion/infusion, interferon-α, topical imiquimod, cryotherapy, radiation therapy, interferon therapy, and intratumoral interleukin-2 injections. Newly emerging treatments include the anti-programmed cell death 1 receptor agents (nivolumab and pembrolizumab), anti-programmed death-ligand 1 agents, and oncolytic vaccines (talimogene laherparepevec). Available treatments for select sites include adoptive T cell therapies and dendritic cell vaccines. In addition to reviewing the above agents and their mechanisms of action, this review will also focus on combination therapy as these strategies have shown promising results in clinical trials for metastatic melanoma treatment.

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