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Metal and proton toxicity to lake zooplankton: a chemical speciation based modelling approach.

  • Stockdale, Anthony1
  • Tipping, Edward2
  • Lofts, Stephen2
  • Fott, Jan3
  • Garmo, Oyvind A4
  • Hruska, Jakub5
  • Keller, Bill6
  • Löfgren, Stefan7
  • Maberly, Stephen C2
  • Majer, Vladimir8
  • Nierzwicki-Bauer, Sandra A9
  • Persson, Gunnar7
  • Schartau, Ann-Kristin10
  • Thackeray, Stephen J2
  • Valois, Amanda11
  • Vrba, Jaroslav12
  • Walseng, Bjørn10
  • Yan, Norman13
  • 1 School of Chemistry, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK. Electronic address: [email protected]
  • 2 Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP, UK.
  • 3 Department of Ecology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Viničná 7, CZ-12844 Prague 2, Czech Republic. , (Czechia)
  • 4 Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Sandvikaveien 59, N-2312 Ottestad, Norway. , (Norway)
  • 5 Czech Geological Survey, Klárov 3, 118 21 Prague 1, Czech Republic; Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Bělidla 986/4a, 603 00 Brno, Czech Republic. , (Czechia)
  • 6 Cooperative Freshwater Ecology Unit, Laurentian University, Sudbury, ON P3E 5P9, Canada. , (Canada)
  • 7 Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7050, SE 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden. , (Sweden)
  • 8 Czech Geological Survey, Klárov 3, 118 21 Prague 1, Czech Republic. , (Czechia)
  • 9 Darrin Fresh Water Institute and Department of Biology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180-3590, USA.
  • 10 Norwegian Institute of Nature Research (NINA), Gaustadalléen 21, NO 0349 Oslo, Norway. , (Norway)
  • 11 Department of Zoology, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand. , (New Zealand)
  • 12 Institute of Hydrobiology, Biology Centre AS CR, Na Sádkách 7, CZ-37005 České Budějovice, Czech Republic. , (Czechia)
  • 13 York University, Department of Biology, 4700 Keele St., Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada. , (Canada)
Published Article
Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987)
Publication Date
Mar 01, 2014
DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2013.11.012
PMID: 24370669


The WHAM-FTOX model quantifies the combined toxic effects of protons and metal cations towards aquatic organisms through the toxicity function (FTOX), a linear combination of the products of organism-bound cation and a toxic potency coefficient for each cation. We describe the application of the model to predict an observable ecological field variable, species richness of pelagic lake crustacean zooplankton, studied with respect to either acidification or the impacts of metals from smelters. The fitted results give toxic potencies increasing in the order H(+) < Al < Cu < Zn < Ni. In general, observed species richness is lower than predicted, but in some instances agreement is close, and is rarely higher than predictions. The model predicts recovery in agreement with observations for three regions, namely Sudbury (Canada), Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic) and a subset of lakes across Norway, but fails to predict observed recovery from acidification in Adirondack lakes (USA).

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