BackgroundPhytoplankton communities significantly contribute to global biogeochemical cycles of elements and underpin marine food webs. Although their uncultured genomic diversity has been estimated by planetary-scale metagenome sequencing and subsequent reconstruction of metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), this approach has yet to be applied for complex phytoplankton microbiomes from polar and non-polar oceans consisting of microbial eukaryotes and their associated prokaryotes.ResultsHere, we have assembled MAGs from chlorophyll a maximum layers in the surface of the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans enriched for species associations (microbiomes) with a focus on pico- and nanophytoplankton and their associated heterotrophic prokaryotes. From 679 Gbp and estimated 50 million genes in total, we recovered 143 MAGs of medium to high quality. Although there was a strict demarcation between Arctic and Atlantic MAGs, adjacent sampling stations in each ocean had 51-88% MAGs in common with most species associations between Prasinophytes and Proteobacteria. Phylogenetic placement revealed eukaryotic MAGs to be more diverse in the Arctic whereas prokaryotic MAGs were more diverse in the Atlantic Ocean. Approximately 70% of protein families were shared between Arctic and Atlantic MAGs for both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. However, eukaryotic MAGs had more protein families unique to the Arctic whereas prokaryotic MAGs had more families unique to the Atlantic.ConclusionOur study provides a genomic context to complex phytoplankton microbiomes to reveal that their community structure was likely driven by significant differences in environmental conditions between the polar Arctic and warm surface waters of the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Ocean. Video Abstract.