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Metabolomics in the study of spontaneous animal diseases.

Authors
  • Tran, Helena1
  • McConville, Malcolm2
  • Loukopoulos, Panayiotis1
  • 1 Melbourne Veterinary School, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. , (Australia)
  • 2 Bio21 Institute, Metabolomics Australia, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. , (Australia)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation : official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc
Publication Date
Sep 01, 2020
Volume
32
Issue
5
Pages
635–647
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1177/1040638720948505
PMID: 32807042
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Using analytical chemistry techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and liquid or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/GC-MS), metabolomics allows detection of most endogenous and exogenous metabolites in a biological sample. Metabolomics has a wide range of applications, and has been employed in nutrition science, toxicology, environmental studies, and systems biology. Metabolomics is particularly useful in biomedical science, and has been used for diagnostic laboratory testing, identifying targets for drug development, and monitoring drug metabolism, mode of action, and toxicity. Despite its immense potential, metabolomics remains underutilized in the study of spontaneous animal diseases. Our aim was to comprehensively review the existing literature on the use of metabolomics in spontaneous veterinary diseases. Three databases were used to find journal articles that applied metabolomics in veterinary medicine. A screening process was then conducted to eliminate references that did not meet the eligibility criteria; only primary research studies investigating spontaneous animal disease were included; 38 studies met the inclusion criteria. The main techniques used were NMR and MS. All studies detected metabolite alterations in diseased animals compared with non-diseased animals. Metabolomics was mainly used to study diseases of the digestive, reproductive, and musculoskeletal systems. Inflammatory conditions made up the largest proportion of studies when articles were categorized by disease process. Following a comprehensive analysis of the literature on metabolomics in spontaneous veterinary diseases, we concluded that metabolomics, although in its early stages in veterinary research, is a promising tool regarding diagnosis, biomarker discovery, and in uncovering new insights into disease pathophysiology.

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