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Metabolism of designer drugs of abuse: an updated review.

Authors
  • 1
  • 1 Department of Experimental and Clinical Toxicology, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Saarland, University, Homburg (Saar), Germany. , (Germany)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Current drug metabolism
1875-5453
Publication Date
Volume
11
Issue
5
Pages
468–482
Identifiers
PMID: 20540700
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

This paper reviews the metabolism of new designer drugs of abuse that have emerged on the black market during the last years and is an update of a review published in 2005. The presented review contains data concerning the so-called 2C compounds (phenethylamine type) such as 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxy-beta-phenethylamine (2C-B), 4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxy-beta-phenethylamine (2C-I), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methyl-beta-phenethylamine (2C-D), 4-ethyl-2,5-dimethoxy-beta-phenethylamine (2C-E), 4-ethylthio-2,5-dimethoxy-beta-phenethylamine (2C-T-2), and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-propylthio-beta-phenethylamine (2C-T-7), beta-keto designer drugs such as 2-methylamino-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)butan-1-one (butylone, bk-MBDB), 2-ethylamino-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)propan-1-one (ethylone, bk-MDEA), 2-methylamino-1-(3,4-methylene notdioxy notphenyl)propan-1-one (methylone, bk-MDMA), and 2-methylamino-1-p-tolylpropane-1-one (mephedrone, 4-methyl-methcathinone), pyrrolidino notphenones such as 4-methyl-pyrrolidinobutyrophenone (MPBP) and alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (PVP), phencyclidine-derived drugs such as N (1 phenylcyclohexyl) propanamine (PCPr), N-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)-2-ethoxyethanamine (PCEEA), N-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)-3-methoxypropanamine (PCMPA), and N-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)-2-methoxyethanamine (PCMEA), tryptamines such as 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyl nottryptamine (5-MeO-DIPT), and finally alpha-methylfentanyl (alpha-MF) and 3-methylfentanyl (3-MF). Papers have been considered and reviewed on the identification of in vivo or in vitro human or animal metabolites and the cytochrome P450 or monoamineoxidase isoenzyme-dependent metabolism.

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