Streptococcus gordonii, a Gram-positive bacterium, is a commensal bacterium that is commonly found in the skin, oral cavity, and intestine. It is also known as an opportunistic pathogen that can cause local or systemic diseases, such as apical periodontitis and infective endocarditis. S. gordonii, an early colonizer, easily attaches to host tissues, including tooth surfaces and heart valves, forming biofilms. S. gordonii penetrates into root canals and blood streams, subsequently interacting with various host immune and non-immune cells. The cell wall components of S. gordonii, which include lipoteichoic acids, lipoproteins, serine-rich repeat adhesins, peptidoglycans, and cell wall proteins, are recognizable by individual host receptors. They are involved in virulence and immunoregulatory processes causing host inflammatory responses. Therefore, S.gordonii cell wall components act as virulence factors that often progressively develop diseases through overwhelming host responses. This review provides an overview of S. gordonii, and how its cell wall components could contribute to the pathogenesis and development of therapeutic strategies.