Mice were trained in a passive (foot shock)avoidance task. When administered after training, the stimulants caffeine or nicotine blocked amnesia for the task that had been produced by injections of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin given prior to training. With foot shock at a higher intensity, anisomycin did not produce amnesia by itself, but the administration of the depressants chloral hydrate or sodium phenobarbital after training did cause amnesia. Stimulants and depressants did not have an appreciable influence on the overall degree of protein synthesis inhibition produced by anisomycin. The results support the hypothesis that arousal after training is an important factor in the conversion of short-term to long-term memory.