Binding sites for antibodies against membrane proteins of synaptic vesicles have been shown to be enhanced at nodes of Ranvier in electromotor axons of the electric ray Torpedo marmorata and sciatic nerve axons of the rat, using indirect immunofluorescence and monoclonal antibodies against the synaptic vesicle transmembrane proteins SV2 and synaptophysin (rat) or SV2 (Torpedo). In the electric lobe of Torpedo, vesicle-membrane constituents occurred at higher density in the proximal axon segments covered by oligodendroglia cells than in the distal axon segments where myelin is formed by Schwann cells. Antibody binding sites were enhanced at nodes forming the borderline of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Filamentous actin was present in the Schwann-cell processes covering both the nodal and the paranodal axon segments as suggested by the pattern of phalloidin labelling. Furthermore, in rat sciatic nerve, Schmidt-Lanterman incisures were intensely labelled by phalloidin. A similar nodal distribution was found for binding sites of antibodies against actin and myosin. Binding of antibodies to tubulin was enhanced at nodes in Torpedo electromotor axons. The apparent nodal accumulation of constituents of synaptic vesicle membranes and the presence of filamentous actin and of myosin are discussed in relation to the substantial constriction of the axoplasm at nodes of Ranvier.