The cytogenetic examination of the population of the villages of Karakent and Ishan consisted of two directions: the study on the frequency of chromosome aberrations in the culture of lymphocytes and the diagnostics of anomalies and variants of karyotype. The frequency of chromosome aberrations of 40 individuals was studied. It is shown that the frequency of cells with chromosome aberrations of the individuals in different villages does not differ and on the average is 1,4%. The distribution of lymphocyte culture according to the number of aberrations corresponds to that of theoretical Puassonian. Chromatide breaks are the main type of the aberrations. Among 250 karyotypically examined individuals no evident structure reformations were found. In the caryotype of a 7-year old girl trisomia of the 21st autosome was detected. On the basis of differential staining of chromosomes by Hiemse's dye 18 individuals (7,2%) were diagnosed to have insignificant changes in morphology of some chromosomes, considered as variants of caryotype. In the majority of cases these changes were of a family nature. On the medical examination mnay individuals were diagnosed to have different pathological features, though we did not succeed in revealing any correlation between a certain microanomaly of chromosomes and a pathological feature.