Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune disease manifested clinically by polyarthralgia associated with joint dysfunction triggering the antibodies targeting against the self-neoepitopes determined by autoimmune responses associated with chronic arthritic attacks. The activation of macrophages and other defence cells in response to self-epitopes as biomarkers in RA provides a better understanding of pathogenesis of disease and has led to the development of novel therapeutic approaches acting as potent inhibitors of these cells. The current review retrieved the various medicinal plants possessing an active phytoconstituents with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, which tends to be effective alternative approach over the synthetic drugs concerned with high toxic effects. The current available literature provided an evident data concluding that the active constituents like fatty acids, flavonoids, terpenes and sesquiterpene lactones attenuate the RA symptoms by targeting the inflammatory biomarkers involved in the pathogenesis of RA. Despite the various synthetic treatment approaches targeting immune cells, cytokines improved the quality of life but still the drug management is challenging due to toxic and chronic teratogenic effects with anti-arthritic drugs. The current review has elaborated the selected traditionally used herbal medicinal plants with phytoconstituents possessing anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing the inflammatory biomarkers with lesser side effects and providing the future exploration of natural drug therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. © 2020 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.