A pilot screening program for the evaluation of former asbestos-cement workers was carried out in the Chest Disease Clinic of the Acco Public Health Office (Ministry of Health), Israel. A total of 184 subjects were evaluated using medical and occupational questionnaires, clinical examinations, and pulmonary function tests (forced expiratory volume, forced vital capacity). Thirty percent of individuals with more than 1 year of work experience had symptoms of breathlessness or cough. Individuals with 10 years or more of work experience showed a high prevalence of râles and reduced pulmonary function, as compared to those with shorter work histories. These findings indicate the urgent need for active follow-up of Israeli ex-asbestos workers. A proposed screening and surveillance program for this high-risk group is discussed with emphasis on follow-up, health education, and smoking cessation.