The paper unveils the concept of medical rehabilitation and defines its place in clinical medicine. It underlines the inextricable link and interaction of different components of a rehabilitation system. The value of the psychological aspect of rehabilitation is considered. Categories of patients and disabled persons who need psychological rehabilitation are identified; a classification of personal reactions to disease and the changes in the psychological state of patients in different periods after disease onset are given. The factors influencing the process of psychological readjustment in patients and the disabled are analyzed. The psychological rehabilitation system for patients and disabled persons is considered in detail. Data on its medical and socioeconomic efficiency are presented.