The health control of the travellers and medical assistance for them and their families is one of the oldest and most fundamental missions of the "Office des migrations internationales" (OMI) as defined by the reglementary treaties of November 1945 and June 1946. More recent reglementations have broadened the competence of the OMI to include certain categories of foreigners who had been exempt from all controls. Finally, the ministerial order of November the 7th 1994 specifies means of the health screening. Medical examinations are carried in various French and foreign institutions. It nowadays has become a consultation aiming at prevention and orientation. The medical examination has three principal objectives: the detection of little known abnormalities; the contact between the medical service of the OMI and regional services in charge of the first check-up; the health education of the examined persons. The clinical and paraclinical results are communicated to the patient who is also informed of the most serious health questions, as well as ways of gaining access to medical care in France; this is done by taking into account all medical parameters and health conditions prevailing in the patient's native country. All detected abnormalities are brought to the attention of the head physician of the OMI who in turn informs the medical inspector of the "Direction départementale des affires sanitaires et sociales" (DDASS) in charge of making sure that the migrant benefits from health and social assistance and receives medical treatment. All pathological results are given to the examined persons in form of a written and confidential report, enabling them to visit a doctor of their choice. A network has thus been built up throughout the various departments involved in the first medical examination and the DDASS has made available for the OMI medical staff listings of public institutions likely to welcome the migrants.