Several medical developments have great implications for treating HIV patients in developing countries, who account for about 90 percent of all cases. A simplified AZT regimen tested in Thailand may cut maternal-infant transmissions in half. The dispute on placebo trials to reduce transmission in developing countries may end. A two-drug tuberculosis regimen taken for two months has been found as effective as the current single-drug treatment taken for a year. Dried blood spots can be used to test viral loads, requiring a significantly smaller amount of blood for test accuracy; this will be especially useful in diagnosing and treating infants. Several studies testing dried blood are described.