Both fragile X syndrome and Rett syndrome are commonly associated with autism spectrum disorders and involve defects in synaptic plasticity. MicroRNA is implicated in synaptic plasticity because fragile X mental retardation protein was recently linked to the microRNA pathway. DNA methylation is also involved in synaptic plasticity since methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is mutated in patients with Rett syndrome. Here we report that expression of miR-184, a brain-specific microRNA repressed by the binding of MeCP2 to its promoter, is upregulated by the release of MeCP2 after depolarization. The restricted release of MeCP2 from the paternal allele results in paternal allele-specific expression of miR-184. Our finding provides a clue to the link between the microRNA and DNA methylation pathways.