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Mechanistically probing lipid-siRNA nanoparticle-associated toxicities identifies Jak inhibitors effective in mitigating multifaceted toxic responses.

Authors
Type
Published Article
Journal
Molecular Therapy
1525-0024
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Volume
19
Issue
3
Pages
567–575
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1038/mt.2010.282
PMID: 21179008
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

A major hurdle for harnessing small interfering RNA (siRNA) for therapeutic application is an effective and safe delivery of siRNA to target tissues and cells via systemic administration. While lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) composed of a cationic lipid, poly-(ethylene glycol) lipid and cholesterol, are effective in delivering siRNA to hepatocytes via systemic administration, they may induce multi-faceted toxicities in a dose-dependent manner, independently of target silencing. To understand the underlying mechanism of toxicities, pharmacological probes including anti-inflammation drugs and specific inhibitors blocking different pathways of innate immunity were evaluated for their abilities to mitigate LNP-siRNA-induced toxicities in rodents. Three categories of rescue effects were observed: (i) pretreatment with a Janus kinase (Jak) inhibitor or dexamethasone abrogated LNP-siRNA-mediated lethality and toxicities including cytokine induction, organ impairments, thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy without affecting siRNA-mediated gene silencing; (ii) inhibitors of PI3K, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p38 and IκB kinase (IKK)1/2 exhibited a partial alleviative effect; (iii) FK506 and etoricoxib displayed no protection. Furthermore, knockout of Jak3, tumor necrosis factor receptors (Tnfr)p55/p75, interleukin 6 (IL-6) or interferon (IFN)-γ alone was insufficient to alleviate LNP-siRNA-associated toxicities in mice. These indicate that activation of innate immune response is a primary trigger of systemic toxicities and that multiple innate immune pathways and cytokines can mediate toxic responses. Jak inhibitors are effective in mitigating LNP-siRNA-induced toxicities.

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