Despite decades of research, a commercially viable bioprocess for fuel desulfurization has not been developed yet. This is mainly due to lack of knowledge of the physiology and metabolism of fuel-biodesulfurizing bacteria. Being a stressful condition, biodesulfurization could provoke several stress responses that are not understood. This is particularly important because a thorough understanding of the microbial stress response is essential for the development of environmentally friendly and industrially efficient microbial biocatalysts. Our comparative systems biology studies provide a mechanistic understanding of the biology of biodesulfurization, which is crucial for informed developments through the rational design of recombinant biodesulfurizers and optimization of the bioprocess conditions. Our findings enhance the understanding of the physiology, metabolism, and stress response not only in biodesulfurizing bacteria but also in rhodococci, a precious group of biotechnologically important bacteria.