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Mechanisms underlying the protective effects of mesenchymal stem cell-based therapy

Authors
  • Fan, Xing-Liang1
  • Zhang, Yuelin2
  • Li, Xin2
  • Fu, Qing-Ling1, 3
  • 1 Otorhinolaryngology Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University,
  • 2 Department of Emergency, Guangdong Provincial People’s Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, 106 Zhongshan Road II, Guangzhou, 510080 People’s Republic of China
  • 3 Sun Yat-Sen University,
Type
Published Article
Journal
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Jan 21, 2020
Volume
77
Issue
14
Pages
2771–2794
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s00018-020-03454-6
PMID: 31965214
PMCID: PMC7223321
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been extensively investigated for the treatment of various diseases. The therapeutic potential of MSCs is attributed to complex cellular and molecular mechanisms of action including differentiation into multiple cell lineages and regulation of immune responses via immunomodulation. The plasticity of MSCs in immunomodulation allow these cells to exert different immune effects depending on different diseases. Understanding the biology of MSCs and their role in treatment is critical to determine their potential for various therapeutic applications and for the development of MSC-based regenerative medicine. This review summarizes the recent progress of particular mechanisms underlying the tissue regenerative properties and immunomodulatory effects of MSCs. We focused on discussing the functional roles of paracrine activities, direct cell–cell contact, mitochondrial transfer, and extracellular vesicles related to MSC-mediated effects on immune cell responses, cell survival, and regeneration. This will provide an overview of the current research on the rapid development of MSC-based therapies.

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