Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (N3-PUFA) are widely reported to improve obesity-associated metabolic impairments, in part, through the regulation of adipokine and cytokine secretion from white adipose tissue (WAT). However, the precise underlying molecular mechanisms by which N3-PUFA influence WAT endocrine function remain poorly described. Available evidence supports that N3-PUFA and related bioactive lipid mediators regulate several intracellular pathways that converge on two important transcription factors: PPAR-γ and NF-κB. Further, N3-PUFA signaling through GPR120 appears integral for the regulation of adipokine and cytokine production. This review collates insights from in vitro and in vivo studies using genetic and chemical inhibition of key signaling proteins to describe the pathways by which N3-PUFA regulate WAT endocrine function. Existing gaps in knowledge and opportunities to advance our understanding in this area are also highlighted. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.