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Mechanisms underlying benign and reversible unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia observed with faldaprevir administration in hepatitis C virus patients.

Authors
  • Sane, Rucha S
  • Steinmann, Gerhard G
  • Huang, Qihong
  • Li, Yongmei
  • Podila, Lalitha
  • Mease, Kirsten
  • Olson, Stephen
  • Taub, Mitchell E
  • Stern, Jerry O
  • Nehmiz, Gerhard
  • Böcher, Wulf O
  • Tarik Asselah
  • Tweedie, Donald
Type
Published Article
Journal
Bulletin de l'Académie nationale de médecine
Publication Date
November 2014
Volume
351
Issue
2
Pages
403–412
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1124/jpet.114.218081
PMID: 25204339
Source
USPC - SET - SVS
License
Unknown

Abstract

Faldaprevir, an investigational agent for hepatitis C virus treatment, is well tolerated but associated with rapidly reversible, dose-dependent, clinically benign, unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Multidisciplinary preclinical and clinical studies were used to characterize mechanisms underlying this hyperbilirubinemia. In vitro, faldaprevir inhibited key processes involved in bilirubin clearance: UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 (UGT1A1) (IC50 0.45 µM), which conjugates bilirubin, and hepatic uptake and efflux transporters, organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 (IC50 0.57 µM), OATP1B3 (IC50 0.18 µM), and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2 (IC50 6.2 µM), which transport bilirubin and its conjugates. In rat and human hepatocytes, uptake and biliary excretion of [(3)H]bilirubin and/or its glucuronides decreased on coincubation with faldaprevir. In monkeys, faldaprevir (≥20 mg/kg per day) caused reversible unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, without hemolysis or hepatotoxicity. In clinical studies, faldaprevir-mediated hyperbilirubinemia was predominantly unconjugated, and levels of unconjugated bilirubin correlated with the UGT1A1*28 genotype. The reversible and dose-dependent nature of the clinical hyperbilirubinemia was consistent with competitive inhibition of bilirubin clearance by faldaprevir, and was not associated with liver toxicity or other adverse events. Overall, the reversible, unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia associated with faldaprevir may predominantly result from inhibition of bilirubin conjugation by UGT1A1, with inhibition of hepatic uptake of bilirubin also potentially playing a role. Since OATP1B1/1B3 are known to be involved in hepatic uptake of circulating bilirubin glucuronides, inhibition of OATP1B1/1B3 and MRP2 may underlie isolated increases in conjugated bilirubin. As such, faldaprevir-mediated hyperbilirubinemia is not associated with any liver injury or toxicity, and is considered to result from decreased bilirubin elimination due to a drug-bilirubin interaction.

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