1. The effects of the intramuscular administration of glycerol and dihydroxyacetone (40mmol per kg body wt.), sorbitol and glucose (20mmol per kg body wt.) or NaCl (1.5mmol per kg body wt. in 10ml of water per kg body wt.) were investigated on soluble phosphatidate phosphohydrolase and certain metabolites in rat liver. 2. The effects of ethanol and glycerol on phosphatidate phosphohydrolase were also studied in isolated perfused livers. 3. The administration of glycerol, sorbitol and dihydroxyacetone in vivo increased hepatic phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity by 137, 63 and 32% respectively in 4h. 4. A significant positive correlation was found between the hepatic sn-glycerol 3-phosphate concentration and phosphatidate phosphohydrolase after the administration of various substrates in vivo. 5. The soluble phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity tended to increase during perfusions of isolated rat livers without added substrates, and neither ethanol nor glycerol produced additional effects. 6. The activity of soluble phosphatidate phosphohydrolase was 2.5 times higher in the livers of hyperthyroid rats than in normal rats. This activity was not influenced by intragastric ethanol or glycerol administration, nor was the concentration of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate changed by these compounds. 7. It is concluded that the ethanol-induced increase in hepatic phosphatidate phosphohydrolase may at least in part be mediated by the hepatic concentration of metabolites, probably by the concentration of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate.