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Measuring Gratitude in Germany: Validation Study of the German Version of the Gratitude Questionnaire-Six Item Form (GQ-6-G) and the Multi-Component Gratitude Measure (MCGM-G)

  • Hudecek, Matthias F. C.1, 2
  • Blabst, Nicole1
  • Morgan, Blaire3
  • Lermer, Eva2, 4
  • 1 University of Regensburg, Regensburg , (Germany)
  • 2 FOM University of Applied Sciences for Economics and Management, Munich , (Germany)
  • 3 Department of Psychology, University of Worcester, Worcester , (United Kingdom)
  • 4 Center for Leadership and People Management, LMU Munich, Munich , (Germany)
Published Article
Frontiers in Psychology
Frontiers Media SA
Publication Date
Oct 08, 2020
DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.590108
PMCID: PMC7586006
PubMed Central


The Gratitude Questionnaire-Six Item Form (GQ-6; McCullough et al., 2002 ) is a well-established instrument for measuring gratitude. Recently, the Multi-Component Gratitude Measure (MCGM) was developed as a more holistic approach ( Morgan et al., 2017 ). While the GQ-6 mainly focuses on the emotional component of gratitude, the MCGM encompasses conceptual, attitudinal, and behavioral aspects. As of today, there is no validated German measure for gratitude. In order to close that research gap, the present study focused on validating the German versions of the GQ-6 (GQ-6-G) and of the MCGM (MCGM-G). In addition, multi-group comparisons were conducted to test for cultural measurement invariance. Construct validity was tested similar to original validation studies of the two scales focusing on affect, well-being, empathy, anxiety and depression. The online survey was completed in random order by 508 participants. The one-factor model of the GQ-6-G and the hierarchical structure of the MCGM-G could be replicated. However, the model fit of the Gratitude Questionnaire was significantly better after eliminating one item (GQ-5-G). Multi-group comparisons revealed cultural measurement invariance was established for the GQ-5-G and partial measurement invariance for five of six factors of the MCGM-G, respectively. Reliability analyses revealed good internal consistency for both instruments, and measures for criterion-related and discriminant validity have shown hypothesized relationships. Thus, the GQ-5-G and the MCGM-G are two instruments with good reliability and validity for measuring gratitude in Germany.

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