Objective To estimate the burden of diseases in Shandong province by the means of DALY (Disability- adjusted life year) thus to investigate the key public health problems referencing for health policy making. Methods DALYs were calculated following the procedures developed for the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study to ensure comparability. We measured YLLs using the mortality data of 19 Disease Surveillance Points (DSPs) in Shandong Province during 2000 and 2005. YLDs were estimated based on data for WPRO in the 2002 GBD study published by WHO. Results During this period, the average DALYs loss by all causes for the residents of DSPs in Shandong was 149.74 per thousand persons each year. Noncommunicable diseases accounted for 76.63% of the disability adjusted life years, communicable diseases and other disorders represented 14.13%, and injuries 9.24%. Nearly half of the DALYs (45%) happened among the elderly (60+). Malignant neoplasm was the number one cause of DALYs loss in the male, followed by neuropsychiatric disorder, injury, cerebrovascular disease, heart disease，etc. However, neuropsychiatric disorder possessed the largest single contributor to DALY in the female and followed by heart disease, malignant neoplasm, cerebrovascular disease and respiratory disease. Conclusion Non-communicable diseases such as circulatory diseases, neuropsychiatric disorders and malignant neoplasms were the main causes of disease burden in Shandong province. The importance of neuropsychiatric disorders was more striking and should be recognized properly. The lack of morbidity data is the main limitation of this study. Abstract in Chinese 目的 应用伤残调整寿命年测量山东省居民疾病负担,提出该地区主要卫生问题,为卫生决策提供科学依据. 方法 以山东省2000-2005年19个疾病监测点的死因监测资料为基础,利用世界卫生组织(WHO)提供的方法计算不同疾病在不同性别年龄人群所造成的伤残调整寿命年(DALYs),其中,YIJDs根据WHO公布的亚太区2002年疾病负担数据进行估算. 结果 2000-2005年山东省疾病监测系统居民因为早死和残疾年平均损失149.74个DALYs/千人,其中,76.6%的DALYs损失因慢性非传染性疾病所致,14.1%由传染性疾病等引起,9.2%因为意外伤害造成;接近1/2(45%)的DALYs损失发生在60岁以上人群;恶性肿瘤为造成男性居民DALYs损失的首位原因,其次为精神行为疾患、意外伤害、脑血管病和心脏病等,女性居民则以精神行为疾患为DALYs首位原因,其次为心脏病、恶性肿瘤、脑血管病和呼吸系统疾病. 结论 以循环系统疾病、精神行为疾惠和恶性肿瘤为首的慢性非传染性疾病为造成山东省疾病负担DALYs损失的主要原因.对于精神行为疾患的重要性的认识有待于进一步提高,研究的主要局限性在于发病率资料的缺乏.