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Measurement invariance of the Phubbing Scale across 20 countries.

  • Błachnio, Agata1
  • Przepiórka, Aneta1
  • Gorbaniuk, Oleg1, 2
  • Bendayan, Rebecca3, 4
  • McNeill, Monika5
  • Angeluci, Alan6
  • Abreu, Ana Maria7
  • Ben-Ezra, Menachem8
  • Benvenuti, Martina9
  • Blanca, Maria J3
  • Brkljacic, Tihana10
  • Babić, Nenad Čuš11
  • Gorbaniuk, Julia1
  • Holdoš, Juraj12
  • Ivanova, Ana1
  • Karadağ, Engin13
  • Malik, Sadia14
  • Mazzoni, Elvis15
  • Milanovic, Anita16
  • Musil, Bojan11
  • And 8 more
  • 1 Airfinity Ltd Martina Benvenuti, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 2 Faculty of Psychology, University of Economics and Human Sciences in Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland. , (Poland)
  • 3 Department of Psychobiology and Behavioral Sciences Methodology, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain. , (Spain)
  • 4 Department of Biostatistics and Health Informatics, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.
  • 5 Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, UK.
  • 6 City University of São Caetano do Sul, São Caetano do Sul, Brazil. , (Brazil)
  • 7 Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Health, Institute of Health Sciences, Lisbon, Portugal. , (Portugal)
  • 8 Ariel University, Ariel, Israel. , (Israel)
  • 9 Italian National Research Council (CNR) and University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 10 Institute of Social Sciences Ivo Pilar, Croatia. , (Croatia)
  • 11 University of Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia. , (Slovenia)
  • 12 Department of Psychology, Catholic University in Ruzomberok, Ruzomberok, Slovakia. , (Slovakia)
  • 13 Educational Administration, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey. , (Turkey)
  • 14 University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan. , (Pakistan)
  • 15 University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 16 Clinic for mental disorders "Dr Laza Lazarević", Belgrade, Serbia. , (Serbia)
  • 17 University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia. , (Serbia)
  • 18 Albright College, Reading, PA, USA.
  • 19 University of Mysore, Mysore, India. , (India)
  • 20 imec-mict-UGent, Ghent University, Belgium. , (Belgium)
  • 21 Department of Psychology, University of Macau, Macau, China. , (China)
Published Article
International journal of psychology : Journal international de psychologie
Publication Date
Jun 25, 2021
DOI: 10.1002/ijop.12790
PMID: 34169522


Mobile phone addiction is a robust phenomenon observed throughout the world. The social aspect of mobile phone use is crucial; therefore, phubbing is a part of the mobile phone addiction phenomenon. Phubbing is defined as ignoring an interlocutor by glancing at one's mobile phone during a face-to-face conversation. The main aim of this study was to investigate how the Phubbing Scale (containing 10 items) might vary across countries, and between genders. Data were collected in 20 countries: Belarus, Brazil, China, Croatia, Ecuador, India, Israel, Italy, Netherlands, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey, UK, Ukraine and USA. The mean age across the sample (N = 7696, 65.8% women, 34.2% men) was 25.32 years (SD = 9.50). The cross-cultural invariance of the scale was investigated using multigroup confirmatory factor analyses (MGCFA) as well as the invariance analyses. Additionally, data from each country were assessed individually via confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs). We obtained two factors, based on only eight of the items: (a) communication disturbances and (b) phone obsession. The 8 items Phubbing Scale. © 2021 International Union of Psychological Science.

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