The causes for the occurrence of goblet cells at the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ-GC) are unknown. The aim of our study was to compare the concurrent histologic changes of the stomach in (1) patients with GEJ-GC, but without Barrett's esophagus (BE) to those in (2) patients with BE and in (3) controls without GEJ-GC or BE. We used an electronic database of histopathologic records from 1.3 million individual patients, who underwent esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGD) in 2009-2018. We compared the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori-positive gastritis (HpG), gastric intestinal metaplasia (G-IM), chronic inactive gastritis (CIG), and reactive gastropathy (RG) among the 3 patient groups, using odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. Of all EGD patients, 4.0% harbored BE and 2.4% GEJ-GC. The average age of patients with GEJ-GC (60 ± 14) was significantly younger than the age of patients with BE (63 ± 12) and significantly older than the age of controls (55 ± 17). Female subjects were more common among GEJ-GC (54%) than BE (37%), but less common than among controls (63%). The 3 gastric histopathology changes associated with H. pylori were significantly more common in GEJ-GC than BE (for HpG 2.42, 2.29-2.56; for G-IM 1.82, 1.73-1.92; for CIG 1.31, 1.22-1.41). The corresponding differences between GEJ-GC and controls were less striking (for HpG 0.97, 0.93-1.01; for G-IM 1.15, 1.11-1.19; for CIG 0.90, 0.85-0.95). RG was slightly less common in GEJ-GC than BE (0.89, 0.86-0.92) and controls (0.94, 0.91-0.96). With respect to its demographic and histopathologic features, GEJ-GC likely represents gastric intestinal metaplasia as opposed to BE and should prompt gastric intestinal metaplasia screening and management.