The mean fibre areas of samples from m. semitendinosus, m. diaphragma and m. pectoralis transversus of thoroughbred horses and greyhounds have been compared with those in similar samples from other members of their species. Athletes (greyhounds and thoroughbreds) have larger fibres in the semitendinosus and diaphragm than their fellows. However, the mean area of pectoralis transversus is similar in the two types of animal within each species. During growth the mean fibre areas increase to a greater extent in athletes than in non-athletes. Detraining adult greyhounds for a period of one year did not signficantly alter the fibre area; nor were any sex differences detected. Although the mean fibre area of corresponding muscles is significantly larger in horses than in dogs, the difference is proportionately less than that of their live weights.