The possibility of maternal in utero modulation of the innate and/or adaptive immune responses of uninfected newborns from Trypanosoma cruzi-infected mothers was investigated by studying the capacity of their whole blood cells to produce cytokines in response to T. cruzi lysate or lipopolysaccharide-plus-phytohemagglutinin (LPS-PHA) stimulation. Cells of such newborns occasionally released gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and no interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-4 upon specific stimulation, while their mothers responded by the production of IFN-gamma, IL-2, and IL-4. Infection in mothers was also associated with a hyperactivation of maternal cells and also, strikingly, of cells of their uninfected neonates, since their release of proinflammatory (IL-1beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha]) as well as of anti-inflammatory (IL-10 and soluble TNF receptor) cytokines or factors was upregulated in the presence of LPS-PHA and/or parasite lysate. These results show that T. cruzi infection in mothers induces profound perturbations in the cytokine response of their uninfected neonates. Such maternal influence on neonatal innate immunity might contribute to limit the occurrence and severity of congenital infection.