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Maternal smoking and cannabis use during pregnancy and infant outcomes

Authors
  • Sturrock, Sarah1
  • Williams, Emma1
  • Ambulkar, Hemant1
  • Dassios, Theodore1, 2
  • Greenough, Anne3, 1, 1, 4
  • 1 King’s College London, UK , (United Kingdom)
  • 2 King’s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, UK , (United Kingdom)
  • 3 King’s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Denmark Hill, SE5 9RS , (United Kingdom)
  • 4 NIHR Biomedical Centre at Guy’s and St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust and King’s College London, UK , (United Kingdom)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Publisher
Walter de Gruyter GmbH
Publication Date
Jan 11, 2020
Volume
48
Issue
2
Pages
168–172
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1515/jpm-2019-0422
Source
De Gruyter
Keywords
License
Yellow

Abstract

Background Our aim was to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking and e-cigarettes and cannabis use during pregnancy, whether these were influenced by ethnicity, and their relationship to perinatal outcomes. Methods A study was carried out in 4465 infants whose mothers delivered during 2017 and 2018. Self-reported maternal smoking, e-cigarette and cannabis use at booking were recorded. Outcome measures were birthweight and head circumference z-scores and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Results Two hundred and five women reported smoking cigarettes (4.7%), five were using e-cigarettes (0.11%) and 106 were using cannabis (2.43%). Women were most likely to smoke if young (15–19 years old) or from a mixed-race or White background. Cigarette smoking was associated with a lower mean z-score for birthweight (−0.587 vs. −0.064) and head circumference (−0.782 vs. −0.157) (both outcomes P < 0.0001). Young, mixed-race women were most likely to be both smoking and using cannabis during pregnancy and their infants had a lower birthweight mean z score (−0.989 vs. −0.587, P = 0.028) and head circumference z score (−1.33 vs. 0.782, P = 0.025) than cigarette use alone. Conclusion Young, mixed-race women were most likely to be both smoking and using cannabis during pregnancy and should be targeted for cessation programmes.

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