There is some empirical evidence that a fetus with an HLA antigen not present in its mother has a higher survival than a fetus sharing antigens with its mother. We have developed both single locus and two-locus theoretical models to examine this mode of selection. First, this immunologically based model appears to have the potential to maintain many alleles at a single locus and to result in an excess of heterozygotes when selection is strong. Second, substantial gametic disequilibrium is maintained between alleles at two loci for this selection mode when recombination is that observed between HLA loci A, B, and DR. Overall, it appears that this mode of selection has the potential to strongly affect genetic variation in the HLA region.