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Maternal cardiac output response to colloid preload and vasopressor therapy during spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section in patients with severe pre-eclampsia: a randomised, controlled trial.

Authors
  • Dyer, R A1
  • Daniels, A1
  • Vorster, A1
  • Emmanuel, A1
  • Arcache, M J1
  • Schulein, S1
  • Reed, A R1
  • Lombard, C J2
  • James, M F1
  • van Dyk, D1
  • 1 Department of Anaesthesia and Peri-operative Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. , (South Africa)
  • 2 Biostatistics Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa. , (South Africa)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Anaesthesia
Publisher
Wiley (Blackwell Publishing)
Publication Date
Oct 31, 2017
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1111/anae.14040
PMID: 29086911
Source
Medline
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

We examined the haemodynamic effects of colloid preload, and phenylephrine and ephedrine administered for spinal hypotension, during caesarean section in 42 women with severe early onset pre-eclampsia. Twenty patients with pre-delivery spinal hypotension were randomly allocated to receive an initial dose of either 50 μg phenylephrine or 7.5 mg ephedrine; the primary outcome was percentage change in cardiac index. After a 300-ml colloid preload, mean (SD) cardiac index increased from 4.9 (1.1) to 5.6 (1.2) l.min-1 .m-2 (p < 0.01), resulting from an increase in both heart rate, from 81.3 (17.2) to 86.3 (16.5) beats.min-1 (p = 0.2), and stroke volume, from 111.8 (19.0) to 119.8 (17.9) ml (p = 0.049). Fourteen (33%) and 23 (54.8%) patients exhibited a stroke volume response > 10% and > 5%, respectively; a significant negative correlation was found between heart rate and stroke volume changes. Spinal hypotension in 20 patients was associated with an increase from baseline in cardiac index of 0.6 l.min-1 .m-2 (mean difference 11.5%; p < 0.0001). After a median [range] dose of 50 [50-150] μg phenylephrine or 15 [7.5-37.5] mg ephedrine, the percentage change in cardiac index during the measurement period of 150 s was greater, and negative, in patients receiving phenylephrine vs. ephedrine, at -12.0 (7.3)% vs. 2.6 (6.0)%, respectively (p = 0.0001). The percentage change in heart rate after vasopressor was higher in patients receiving phenylephrine, at -9.1 (3.4)% vs. 5.3 (12.6)% (p = 0.0027), as was the change in systemic vascular resistance, at 22.3 (7.5) vs. -1.9 (10.5)% (p < 0.0001). Phenylephrine effectively reverses spinal anaesthesia-induced haemodynamic changes in severe pre-eclampsia, if left ventricular systolic function is preserved.

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