Abstract Objective: To describe and analyze indicators of feeding practices related to breastfeeding and factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in a subnormal urban cluster (slums) in Pernambuco, Brazil. Methods: Four breastfeeding indicators were used to interview mothers of children under 3 years of age. An inventory of the families' socioeconomic and environmental factors, maternal obstetric history, and basic health care access was undertaken. The sample consisted of all 310 children under the age of 3 years from Coelhos, PE, Brazil. Spearman's correlation was carried out, as well as crude and adjusted prevalence ratios for a final statistical model that showed associated factors with the main outcome at a level of 0.05. Results: The prevalence of breastfeeding in the first hour of life, exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months, continued breastfeeding at 1 year, and continued breastfeeding at 2 years were 60.2%, 32.9%, 45.9, and 35.9%, respectively. A correlation was observed between start of pacifier use and duration of either exclusive (r s = 0.358 [p < 0.001]) or non‐exclusive breastfeeding (r s = 0.248 [p = 0.006]). Maternal age over 35 years (p < 0.001), home visit in the first week after birth (p = 0.003), having had a male baby (p = 0.029), and not using a pacifier (p < 0.001) remained protective factors in the final model. Conclusion: The prevalence rates of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months were well above the results obtained by other Brazilian authors. Home visit and maternal age prevailed as protective factors, while pacifier use was shown to be a discouraging practice.