Women affected by breast cancer are faced with the removal of a body part related to sexuality. This study aimed to investigate the impact of breast cancer and mastectomy in women's sexuality through the analysis of scientific literature published from 2000 to 2009. The bibliographic survey was carried out in LILACS, MedLine and PsycINFO databases. Twenty nine articles were selected to constitute the corpus of the analysis. The findings were grouped by means of content analysis. The results showed that after the removal of the breast, sexual performance is compromised, with reduced frequency of sexual intercourse in the early stages of treatment and low sexual desire, interest and satisfaction.