Mast-cell-development in the bone-marrow (BM) and the spleen is restrictedly controlled by stromal-cells which produce positive-regulators such as stem cell factor (SCF), and negative-regulators such as transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). How the balance between positive- and negative-regulation is achieved or maintained by stromal-cells is not well understood. We intravenously injected 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into C3H/HeN mice to disrupt mast-cell-development in order to reveal mechanisms of mast-cell-regulation. 5-FU treatment induces a rapid decrease in the number of mast-cell-progenitor (colony-forming unit (CFU)-mast) cells in the BM and spleen, followed by rapid recovery of CFU-mast numbers. Expression of the SCF gene is one-fiftieth the level of that of TGF-β during the steady-state in BM and spleen. After 5-FU treatment, SCF mRNA levels in the BM markedly increased, approaching TGF-β mRNA levels, whereas SCF levels in the spleen showed limited oscillations whose increases paralleled those in TGF-β levels. In contrast, LPS treatment induces a rapid decrease in CFU-mast number in the BM and a rapid increase in of CFU-mast number in the spleen. After LPS treatment, SCF mRNA levels in the BM markedly decreased, whereas SCF levels in the spleen remained unchanged. These results suggest that regulation of mast-cell-development is dominated by negative-signals in the BM and spleen during the steady-state, and, under biostress-conditions such as 5-FU and LPS treatment, the balance between positive- and negative-regulation can be changed in the BM but not in the spleen. The difference in the regulation of mast-cell-development in the BM versus the spleen probably reflects the different roles of tissue-specific stromal-cells.