Chemical contamination of fresh produce through pesticide spraying is considered a minor risk for consumer health. As a result, significant responsibility in food safety may be shifted to the private sector by public agencies. The involvement of the private sector is even greater when fresh produce is sold to safety-conscious consumers, given the high exposure of retailers' commercial reputation. This chapter focuses on public and private management of food safety risks, and the determinants thereof in the fresh produce industry of two contrasting Mediterranean countries: Morocco and Turkey. Based on expert surveys and face-to-face interviews with a large number of tomato growers, it provides insight into how and why different players are managing and controlling safety risks. A clear distinction is made between firm-scale factors at growing and shipping levels and country-wide factors, especially recent developments in markets and regulatory institutions. Both significantly influence the level of safety management in greenhouses, the adoption of good agricultural practices and integrated pest management. All factors should be taken into consideration simultaneously to understand the respective contributions of public and private operators in the safety risk management of the fresh produce chain.