AbstractEndothelial cells (ECs) line the blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, as well as heart chambers, forming the border between the tissues, on the one hand, and blood or lymph, on the other. Such a strategic position of the endothelium determines its most important functional role in the regulation of vascular tone, hemostasis, and inflammatory processes. The damaged endothelium can be both a cause and a consequence of many diseases. The state of the endothelium is indicated by the phenotype of these cells, represented mainly by (trans)membrane markers (surface antigens). This review defines endothelial markers, provides a list of them, and considers the mechanisms of their expression and the role of the endothelium in certain pathological conditions.