Bacteria are widespread in nature as they can adapt to any extreme environmental conditions and perform various physiological activities. Marine environments are one of the most adverse environments owing to their varying nature of temperature, pH, salinity, sea surface temperature, currents, precipitation regimes and wind patterns. Due to the constant variation of environmental conditions, the microorganisms present in that environment are more suitably adapted to the adverse conditions, hence, possessing complex characteristic features of adaptation. Therefore, the bacteria isolated from the marine environments are supposed to be better utilized in bioremediation of heavy metals, hydrocarbon and many other recalcitrant compounds and xenobiotics through biofilm formation and production of extracellular polymeric substances. Many marine bacteria have been reported to have bioremediation potential. The advantage of using marine bacteria for bioremediation in situ is the direct use of organisms in any adverse conditions without any genetic manipulation. This review emphasizes the utilization of marine bacteria in the field of bioremediation and understanding the mechanism behind acquiring the characteristic feature of adaptive responses.