The study details geological analysis of the South China Sea region. South China Sea is a marginal sea located in unique geographical region of west Pacific Ocean. It has a complex tectonics history being developed at subduction zone of three tectonic plates: Eurasian, Pacific and Indian. Geologically, South China Sea is rich in mineral resources and has high geological prospects. Within the scope of the study, the review of the general settings of the study area (bathymetry, geology, tectonics and sedimentation) is accomplished by the report on the current activities, methods and research clusters. Current directions in the marine geological research in the South China Sea area are presented. Research methods of the seafloor surveying and mapping currently undertaken in the South China Sea region are described: systematic measurement by multi-beam echo-sounders, altimetric measurements, GPS positioning, application of the unmanned underwater vehicles, GIS mapping, data analysis, dredging and drilling. The results include maps visualized by means of Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) showing geological and geophysical settings in the South China Sea region, bathymetry and model of the marine free-air gravity. Research development and recent progress in marine geologic investigations are reported with focus on current activities in the coastal area of the South China Sea region.